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Artículos de Chile.

RJ Article Garrido, John. Nuevas soluciones a conflictos penal alternativas al juicio
El nuevo código procesal penal dominicano se expresa organizando formas de solución al conflicto de relevancia penal distintas a la que tradicionalmente se viene usando con el juicio. En tal sentido indica el nuevo código en su articulo 2 "solución del conflicto. Los tribunales procuran resolver el conflicto surgido a consecuencia del hecho punible, para contribuir a restaurar la armonía social. En todo caso, al proceso penal se le reconoce el carácter de medida extrema de la política criminal." Este principio para resolver un problema de carácter penal tiene su origen en varios documentos de dimensión internacional sobre derechos humanos que han adoptado nuevas formas distinta al juicio. El resumen del Centro de Estudios de Justicia de las Americas, www.cejamericas.org.
RJ Article Riva, Ricardo. Programa de Mediación Penal Juvenil: Provincia de Neuquén, República Argentina
En la provincia de Neuquén, República Argentina, se ha creado a partir de la firma de un Convenio de colaboración celebrado entre el Tribunal Superior de Justicia y el Ministerio de Gobierno y Seguridad un programa que aplica la mediación en materia penal juvenil. Este mecanismo alternativo de resolución del conflicto penal permite obtener respuestas más satisfactorias para el infractor, para la víctima y para la sociedad en su conjunto. Resumen del Centro de Estudios de Justicia de las Americas, www.cejamericas.org.
RJ Article Devoto, Eleonora A.. Sobre la mediación penal: Algunas consideraciones relativas a su justificación teórica
El siguiente documento examina el contexto académico de la mediación penal, en lo que refiere a la formación intelectual para abordarla. La autora propone que no se puede soslayarse en absoluto el conocimiento de la cuestión penal, la que informa cualquier intento por una consideración profunda. Resumen del Centro de Estudios de Justicia de las Americas, www.cejamericas.org.
RJ Article CEJUR. Centro de Estudos Jurídicos do Minho. La Justicia Restaurativa y la Mediación Penal
El estado de derecho contiene los impulsos del estado de policía que encierra, en la medida en que resuelve mejor los conflictos (provee mayor paz social). El poder punitivo no resuelve los conflictos porque deja a una parte (la víctima) fuera de su modelo. Como máximo puede aspirar a suspenderlos, dejando que el tiempo los disuelva, lo que dista mucho de ser una solución, pues la suspensión fija el conflicto (lo petrifica) y la dinámica social, que continua, su curso, lo erosiona hasta disolverlo. Un número exagerado de formaciones pétreas, puesto en el camino de la dinámica social, tiene el efecto de alterar su curso y de generar peligrosas represas. El volumen de conflictos suspendidos por un estado, guardara relación inversa con su vocación de proveedor de paz social y por ende, será indicador de su fortaleza como estado de derecho. La Justicia Restaurativa constituye un nuevo paradigma más centrado en la reparación que en la punición. Esto representa una verdadera ruptura en relación a los principios de la Justicia Retributiva, basada en el pronunciamiento de sanciones que se extienden desde el pago de una multa hasta la privación de la libertad. (extracto del documento)
RJ Article Campos Hidalgo, Hector. Reflexiones en torno a la incorporación de estrategias de justicia restaurativa en nuestro país
Este artículo, como su título lo señala, pretende aportar al debate y la reflexión sobre la incorporación de estrategias de justicia restaurativa en nuestro país, para enfrentar conflictos penales. Contiene la subjetividad y los sesgos de su autor un "operador social", término con que la modernidad denomina a los trabajadores sociales en un sentido amplio, que intervienen a diario en temas de justicia y población infanto - adolescente. Las reflexiones tienen su sustento en seis años de trabajo directo con niños a los que se les imputan delitos y, uno como perito social de la Defensoria Penal Pública de la cuarta región. No pretende establecer grandes certidumbres, ni hacer lo que frecuentemente hacemos los operadores sociales, que es hablar de lo específico, de lo casuístico. Por el contrario pretende llevar un tema, que es motivo de evaluación, en lo que respecta a la reforma procesal penal y, de agenda parlamentaria en materia de justicia juvenil, a la reflexión sobre su ejecución. Lo anterior con las limitaciones y virtudes propias del oficio de quien lo suscribe. (un extracto del documento).
RJ Article Heskia, Joanna and Blanco, Rafael and Rojas, Hugo and Heskia, Joanna and Diaz, Alejandra and Blanco, Rafael. Justicia Restaurativa: Marco Teórico, Experiencias Comparadas y Propuestas de Política Pública
sin resumen
RJ Article Price, Marty D.. Restorative Justice Speaking Tour in Argentina and Chile.
For two weeks this past May, I visited Argentina and Chile to speak about restorative justice at the request of each country’s Ministry of Justice. As a pioneer in the restorative justice field, I felt confident that I could provide valuable expertise, experience and resources. But, I quickly realized there was more to present than one person could bring. (excerpt)
RJ Article Lira, Elizabeth. The Reparations Policy for Human Rights Violations in Chile
"This chapter describes the reparations programs implemented in Chile from 1990 to 2004. These programs are addressed to victims of violations of human rights committed during the military regime (1973-90): the relatives of disappeared and executed persons; people who were dismissed from their jobs for political motives; peasants who participated in the land reform and were expelled for political reasons from the land; and Chilean exiles returning to the country. Political prisoners and torture victims were considered only in 2003. The creation of the Commission for Political Imprisonment and Torture (2003-5) was followed by a law that provides pensions to political prisoners and torture victims identified by the Commission. Created with different kinds of victims in mind, these programs have been based on pensions, social services, educational benefits, public recognition of the violations of the victims' rights, monuments, sites of memory, and health assistance, mainly in the form of mental health services. The Program for Reparation and Integral Health Assistance for Victims of Human Rights Violations, created in 1991 and reinforced by a law at the end of 2004, has provided health services to all kinds of victims of human rights violations, including third-generation relatives." (excerpt)
RJ Article Price, Marty D.. Restorative Justice Speaking Tour in Argentina and Chile.
n May, 2006 I had the unique opportunity to spend two weeks on speaking tours of Argentina and Chile as a restorative justice expert. Initially, I was invited by the Argentine Ministry of Justice. The Chilean Ministry of Justice requested that my tour be extended to Chile after they learned I would be coming to Argentina. The tour was sponsored and paid for by the U.S. Department of State’s Democracy and Human Rights International Information Program. The tour program was called, "Restorative Justice: Practices and Pitfalls - How to Make it Work." (excerpt)
RJ Article Acuña, Carlos H.. Transitional Justice in Argentina and Chile: A Never-Ending Story?
The object of this chapter is to analyze and explain the particular dynamics assumed by the political process related to the treatment of military human rights violations during the transitions to democracy in Argentina and Chile. This work explains why the actors did what they did as a function of their objectives and the political and institutional constraints they encountered. It analyzes how and why the articulation of the different strategies shaped the political process and, finally, the significance of these processes for the type of democratic regime that emerged in each of these two Latin American countries. (excerpt)
RJ Article Elster, Jon. Retribution and Reparation in the Transition to Democracy
The contributions in this volume offer a comprehensive analysis of transitional justice from 1945 to the present. They focus on retribution against the leaders and agents of autocratic regimes preceding democratic transitions, and on reparation to victims. Part I contains general theoretical discussions of retribution and reparation. The essays in Part II survey transitional justice in the wake of World War II, covering Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Norway. In Part III, the contributors discuss more recent transitions in Argentina, Chile, Eastern Europe, the former German Democratic Republic, and South Africa, with a chapter on the reparation of injustice in some of these situations. The editor provides a general introduction, a brief introduction to each part, and a conclusion that looks beyond regime transitions to vroader issues of rectifying historical injustice. (Publisher’s description)
RJ Article Lagos Fuente, Scarlette. ¿Podríamos hacer mediación penal en Chile?
Esta interrogante surge a propósito del proceso que actualmente se está viviendo en Chile, donde las políticas públicas tienden a una modernización de la justicia y en los proyectos de ley y en leyes de reciente ejecución, se hace alusión en general a los medios alternativos de resolución de disputas y, en particular, a la mediación. (extracto)
RJ Article Sepúlveda, Rodrigo and Mettifogo, Decio. La situación y el tratamiento de jóvenes infractores de ley en Chile
Esta primera publicación en el ámbito del delito juvenil del Centro de Estudios en Seguridad Ciudadana busca por tanto aportar a la elaboración de políticas democráticas dirigidas a reducir los niveles de violencia y criminalidad. En una primera sección se desarrollará una breve discusión acerca del concepto de juventud a considerar y su evolución. En un segundo punto, se presentará la evolución histórica del tratamiento de adolescentes y jóvenes infractores de ley en Chile. La tercera sección expondrá -de modo de contextualizar los datos sobre delitos disponiblesla situación de los niños y jóvenes en Chile hoy, en términos demográficos y características socioeconómicas. Luego, se realizará una estimación de la participación de menores de edad en la comisión de delitos. Se analizarán las investigaciones existentes que tienen por objeto cuantificar y evaluar la evolución de los delitos violentos cometidos por jóvenes, analizando los criterios utilizados y la calidad de la información disponible. Asimismo, se establecerán criterios y requerimientos para contar con información estadística que dé cuenta de esta realidad. Por último, se analizarán las alternativas y situación actual del tratamiento de jóvenes infractores, desde el punto de vista de los programas ejecutados por el Estado.
RJ Article Oman, Natalie. Paths to Intercultural Understanding: Feasting, Shared Horizons, and Unforced Consensus.
Theories of intercultural understanding are generally required and formulated in response to conflict between members of different cultures, when differing belief systems or worldviews grate against one another more sharply in the presence of a specific contested resource, value or belief. In such a situation, a theory of intercultural understanding serves as the underpinning for a practical approach to intercultural negotiation aimed at resolving the conflict. In the wake of a general apprehension by Europeans of the existence of the profoundly different civilizations in the inhabitants of other continents in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the colonial era that followed, such situations of conflict have arisen with destructive frequency between members of the dominant societies of “post”-colonial powers and members of formerly colonized peoples within those states or their former satellites. The following story drawn from the long history of these clashes helps to illustrate why approaches to intercultural negotiation that do not place a premium upon the pursuit of the intercultural understanding are unhelpful in achieving lasting resolutions of such disputes. (excerpt)
RJ Article Barahona de Brito, Alexandra. Passion, Constraint, Law and Fortuna: The Human Rights Challenge to Chilean Democracy
Alexandra Barahona de Brito characterizes the Chilean response to past human rights violations under the regime of Augusto Pinochet Ugarte in terms of four qualities or aspects: passion; constraint; law; and fortuna. There has been a passion to uncover and confront the past, but this passion has been constrained by the political and constitutional setting and by caution about the balance of power in Chile. To some extent, approaches to reconciliation and democratization have obstructed, rather than reinforced, each other. At the same time, law (a rigid and codified factor) and fortuna (an unpredictable and uncontrollable phenomenon) have challenged the approach toward reconciliation and the forces of constraint. Law and fortuna have in turn led to a wider sense of truth and justice as well as a new impetus toward democratization. Barahona de Briton chronicles the back and forth dynamics of these characteristics over two phases – first, under the Aylwin government from 1990 to 1994; second, under the Frei government from 1994 to 2000 – as Chileans sought to confront and deal with human rights violations under the Pinochet regime. Along with this, she also looks at reconciliation versus democratization through the lens of the Pinochet arrest and consequent legal and political maneuverings in the late 1990s.
RJ Article Amstutz, Mark R.. The healing of nations: the promise and limits of political forgiveness
Mark Amstutz in this book considers the nature and potential of forgiveness in international and domestic politics. Like many, he had thought of forgiveness in personal terms. It pertained to issues of personal morality, to interpersonal relationships and religious life, but it was not applicable to political life, policies, officials, and structures. However, in response at least in part to Donald Shriver’s An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics (1995), Amstutz began to doubt that there was such a clear and wide divide between personal morality and political morality, with forgiveness relevant to the former and irrelevant to the latter. He came to think that forgiveness, while difficult to apply to political morality, could in fact be practiced in politics, especially in confronting past collective offenses. This led him to explore the potential contribution of concepts like culpability, confession, repentance, forgiveness, and reconciliation to processes of collective healing at various levels of group life, including the communal, national, and international. Thus this book came into being. It consists of a study in applied political ethics. Amstutz’s goals in it are to identify and illuminate relevant moral norms with respect to forgiveness and to demonstrate how they can be employed in political life. Looking at four case studies – Argentina, Chile, Northern Ireland, and South Africa – he argues that forgiveness, when rooted in restorative justice, can promote healing and renewal in social and political life, thereby fostering a more just, humane, and stable political order. Chapters include the following: the nature and purpose of forgiveness; the possibility and promise of political forgiveness; justice, reconciliation, and political forgiveness; studies of Argentina, Chile, Northern Ireland, and South Africa; and thoughts toward a theory of political forgiveness.
RJ Article Goti, Jaime Malamud. The Moral Dilemmas about Trying Pinochet in Spain
In 1998, the former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet Ugarte was in London, England, receiving medical treatment. A Spanish court, having gathered evidence implicating Pinochet in thousands of abuses perpetrated in Chile under his regime, as well as crimes beyond Chile, requested the British government to arrest Pinochet and extradite him to Spain for trial. After arresting him to consider the Spanish court’s claims, the British government sent Pinochet back to Chile as being too frail to undergo trial in Spain. Those judicial proceedings were fraught with many questions and controversies of jurisdiction, national sovereignty, immunity for heads of state, national and international law, and responsibility for injustices and human rights violations. In this context, Jaime Malamud Goti investigates the merits and demerits of international criminal justice in prosecuting state criminals.
RJ Article Hamber, Brandon. Rights and Reasons: Challenges for Truth Recovery in South Africa and Northern Ireland
The understanding of truth commissions—as one mechanism of transitional justice—has changed in the last few years.1 In the past, truth commissions were largely understood as investigative mechanisms with the primary aim of publishing an authoritative and factual report on human rights violations committed in a country. The societal impact of gathering information was given little attention. However, currently, “the possibility of holding public hearings, advancing societal and individual healing, and taking part in or promoting a process of reconciliation (however defined) has opened wide the question of means, independent of the final end reached�?. (excerpt)
RJ Article Vargas Viancos, Juan E. La reforma a la justicia criminal en Chile: el cambio del rol estatal
El artículo analiza la estrategia que permitío incorporar el tema de la reforma en la agenda política, las alíanzas que se crearon, cómo se combinó el trabajo técnico con el político, etc. Artículo forma parte del Estudio de Casos No.23, Diciembre 1997. Resumen por El Cento De Estudios de Justicia de las Americas, www.cejamericas.org
RJ Article Parker, Lynette. The Use of Restorative Practices in Latin America
Several Latin American countries are looking for alternative methods for dealing with crime and conflict. This opening has spurred both government and civil society to experiment with restorative processes. Innovations include the use of penal mediation for criminal cases, the introduction of peace education into schools, and the incorporation of restorative principles into law. A pilot project in penal mediation by the University of Buenos Aires has led to the inclusion of mediation in the Argentine criminal justice system. Civil society groups in Chile are pioneering mediation in various aspects of life. Other countries seeing innovations include Costa Rica, Brazil and Mexico.

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